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Phase 1

Phase 1 trials test a new cancer treatment or drug which has already been extensively tested the laboratory. It is the first time the treatment will be used to treat people and usually involve a small number of patients. It aims to find out:

  • The safe dose range
  • The side effects
  • How the body copes with the drug

If the treatment is safe, it will then continue to the next phase and be tested in phase 2 trials.

Phase 2

Phase 2 trials include a larger group of patients and aims to find out:

  • The effectiveness of the treatment on the cancer / symptoms
  • the types of cancer it is most effective in
  • more information about the side effects
  • the best and safest dose to use

If the results are positive the treatment will proceed to a phase 3 trial

Phase 3

Phase 3 trials include hundreds of patients, and aim to:

  • compare the effectiveness of newer treatments with that of standard treatments
  • compare doses or ways of giving standard treatments
  • determine how well the drug works and how long the effects last
  • continues to collect information on side effects
Phase 4

Phase 4 trials are carried out after a drug is shown to be effective and has been granted a license, and aims to determine:

  • how well the drug works when it’s used more widely than in clinical trials
  • the long-term risks and benefits of the drug
  • more about the possible rare side effects and safety of the drug

Our well established Clinical Trials Unit here at Velindre Cancer Centre has been running since 1994. Working with Cancer Clinicians, we participate in over 200 national and international clinical trials, and have specialist research teams to cover most cancer sites.

If you would like any further information, please contact the Clinical Trials Unit on 02920 316222.