Whilst investigations into healthcare caught infections are standard practice across the NHS, there are many factors and complexities that need to be considered in relation to COVID-19. Little was known about COVID-19 at the beginning of the pandemic, including modes of transmission, infectivity and disease severity. We continue to learn about how the infection spreads, and the size and scale of the pandemic. The separate framework is designed to support Health Boards and Trusts practically apply PTR within the context of COVID-19. The legal duty on organisations to investigate in keeping with the Regulations is, however, unchanged.